Aimé Césaire (1913 - 2008), born in Martinique, is one of the founders of «négritude», a political and literary theory anchored in anti-colonialism. Césaire studied in Martinique until 1931, when he was awarded a scholarship to study in France. During his years in Paris, he founded the literary magazine L'étudiant noir in which he first presented the concept of négritude. Back in Martinique in 1939, Césaire taught literature. He founded the literary magazine Tropiques in 1941. After the Second World War, in 1945, Aimé Césaire became mayor of Fort-de-France, and then member of parliament. Often inspired by surrealism, Césaire's poetry underlines the consequences of colonialism, and expresses nostalgia for freedom, and revolt against servitude.